Cassini-Huygens is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn. It is a flagship-class NASA-ESA-ASI robotic spacecraft.[3] Cassini is the fourth space probe to visit Saturn and the first to enter orbit, and its mission is ongoing as of 2015. It has studied the planet and its many natural satellites since arriving there in 2004.
Development started in the 1980s. Its design includes a Saturn orbiter, and a lander for the moon Titan. The lander, called Huygens, landed on Titan in 2005. The two-part spacecraft is named after astronomers Giovanni Cassini and Christiaan Huygens.
The spacecraft launched on October 15, 1997 aboard a Titan IVB/Centaur and entered orbit around Saturn on July 1, 2004, after an interplanetary voyage that included flybys of Earth, Venus, and Jupiter. On December 25, 2004, Huygens separated from the orbiter and reached Saturn's moonTitan on January 14, 2005. It entered Titan's atmosphere and descended to the surface. It successfully returned data to Earth, using the orbiter as a relay. This was the first landing ever accomplished in the outer Solar System.
Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS)
The ISS is a remote sensing instrument that captures most images in visible light, and also some infrared images and ultraviolet images. The ISS has taken hundreds of thousands of images of Saturn, its rings, and its moons. The ISS has a wide-angle camera (WAC) that takes pictures of large areas, and a narrow-angle camera (NAC) that takes pictures of small areas in fine detail. Each of these cameras uses a sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) as its electromagnetic wave detector. Each CCD has a 1,024 square array of pixels, 12 μm on a side. Both cameras allow for many data collection modes, including on-chip data compression. Both cameras are fitted with spectral filters that rotate on a whee to view different bands within the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 0.2 to 1.1 μm.


Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies. Named after the astronomer Galileo Galilei, it consisted of an orbiter and entry probe. It was launched on October 18, 1989, carried by Space Shuttle Atlantis, on the STS-34 mission. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, after gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, and became the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter. It launched the first probe into Jupiter, directly measuring its atmosphere. Despite suffering major antenna problems,Galileo achieved the first asteroid flyby, of 951 Gaspra, and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, around 243 Ida. In 1994, Galileo observedComet Shoemaker-Levy 9's collision with Jupiter. The spacecraft was an international effort by the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany.

The SSI was an 800-by-800-pixel solid state camera consisting of an array of silicon sensors called a "charge coupled device" (CCD). Galileo was one of the first spacecraft to be equipped with a CCD camera.[citation needed] The optical portion of the camera was built as a Cassegrain telescope. Light was collected by the primary mirror and directed to a smaller secondary mirror that channeled it through a hole in the center of the primary mirror and onto the CCD. The CCD sensor was shielded from radiation, a particular problem within the harsh Jovian magnetosphere. The shielding was accomplished by means of a 10 mm thick layer of tantalum surrounding the CCD except where the light enters the system. An eight-position filter wheel was used to obtain images at specific wavelengths. The images were then combined electronically on Earth to produce color images. The spectral response of the SSI ranged from about 0.4 to 1.1 micrometres. The SSI weighed 29.7 kilograms and consumed, on average, 15 watts of power.

Hubble WF/PC I

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WFPC) (pronounced as wiffpick) was a camera installed on the Hubble Space Telescope until December 1993. It was one of the instruments on Hubble at launch, but its functionality was severely impaired by the defects of the main mirror optics which afflicted the telescope. However, it produced uniquely valuable high resolution images of relatively bright astronomical objects, allowing for a number of discoveries to be made by HST even in its aberrated condition.
WFPC was proposed by James A. Westphal, a professor of planetary science at Caltech, and was designed, constructed, and managed by JPL. At the time it was proposed, 1976, CCDs had barely been used for astronomical imaging, though the first KH-11 KENNAN reconnaissance satellite equipped with CCDs for imaging was launched in December 1976. The high sensitivity offered such promise that many astronomers strongly argued that CCDs should be considered for Hubble Space Telescope instrumentation.
This first WFPC consisted of two separate cameras, each comprising 4 800x800 pixel Texas Instruments CCDs arranged to cover a contiguous field of view. The Wide Field camera had a 0.1 arc second pixel scale and was intended for the panoramic observations of faint sources at the cost of angular resolution. The Planetary Camera had a 0.043 arc second pixel scale and was intended for high-resolution observations. Selection between the two cameras was done with a four-facetted pyramid that rotated by 45 degrees.
As part of the corrective service mission (STS-61 in December 1993) the WFPC was swapped out for a replacement version. The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 improved on its predecessor and incorporated corrective optics needed to overcome the main mirror defect. To avoid potential confusion, the WFPC is now most commonly referred to as WFPC1.
On its return to Earth, the WFPC was disassembled and parts of it were used in Wide Field Camera 3,[3] which was installed in Hubble on May 14, 2009 as part of Servicing Mission 4, replacing WFPC2.

The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 1 (WFPC1, also known as WF/PC) was the original main camera installed onboard at launch in 1990. The camera itself worked flawlessly, though Hubble���������‚š�š�š�š���������‚š�š�š�ž�s mirror problem reduced the sharpness of its images.

Hubble WF/PC II

The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was Hubble workhorse camera for many years. It recorded images through a selection of 48 color filters covering a spectral range from far-ultraviolet to visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The heart of WFPC2 consisted of an L-shaped trio of wide-field sensors and a smaller, high resolution (Planetary) Camera placed at the square's remaining corner.

The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is a camera formerly installed on the Hubble Space Telescope. The camera was built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is roughly the size of a baby grand piano. It was installed by servicing mission 1 (STS-61) in 1993, replacing the telescope's original Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WF/PC). WFPC2 was used to image the Hubble Deep Field in 1995, the Hourglass Nebula and Egg Nebula in 1996, and the Hubble Deep Field South in 1998. During STS-125, WFPC2 was removed and replaced with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the mission's first spacewalk on May 14, 2009. After returning to Earth, the camera was displayed briefly at the National Air and Space Museum and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory before returning to its final home at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum.

WFPC2 was built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which also built the predecessor WF/PC camera launched with Hubble in 1990. WFPC2 contains internal corrective optics to fix the spherical aberration in the Hubble telescope's primary mirror.
The charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in the WFPC2 (designed at JPL and manufactured by Loral) detected electromagnetic radiation in a range from 120 nmto 1000 nm. This included the 380 nm to 780 nm of the visible spectrum, all of the near ultraviolet (and a small part of the extreme ultraviolet band) and most of the near infrared band. The sensitivity distribution of these CCDs is roughly normal, with a peak around 700 nm and concomitantly very poor sensitivity at the extremes of the CCDs' operating range. WFPC2 featured four identical CCD detectors, each 800x800 pixels. Three of these, arranged in an L-formation, comprise Hubble's Wide Field Camera (WFC). Adjacent to them is the Planetary Camera (PC), a fourth CCD with different (narrower-focused) optics. This afforded a more detailed view over a smaller region of the visual field. WFC and PC images are typically combined, producing the WFPC2's characteristic stair-step image. When distributed as non-scientific JPEG files the PC portion of the image is shown with the same resolution as the WFC portions, but astronomers receive a raw scientific image package which presents the PC image in its native, higher detail.
To allow scientists to view specific parts of the electromagnetic spectrum the WFPC2 featured a rotating wheel which moves different optical filters into the lightpath (between the WFPC2's aperture and the CCD detectors). The 48 filter elements included:
A set of standard wide band photometric filters.
A graduated filter, featuring a wide range of very narrowband filters. By positioning the target object at a precise part of the field, the operator can use an accurately picked narrowband filter.
A number of narrowband optical filters tuned to the wavelengths various atomic emission lines.

Mariner 4

Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode. It was designed to conduct closeup scientific observations of Mars and to transmit these observations to Earth. Launched on November 28, 1964, Mariner 4 performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. It captured the first images of another planet ever returned from deep space; their depiction of a cratered, seemingly dead world largely changed the view of the scientific community on life on Mars. Other mission objectives were to perform field and particle measurements in interplanetary space in the vicinity of Mars and to provide experience in and knowledge of the engineering capabilities for interplanetary flights of long duration. On December 21, 1967 communications with Mariner 4 were terminated.

A television camera, mounted on a scan platform at the bottom center of the spacecraft, to obtain closeup pictures of the surface of Mars. This subsystem consisted of 4 parts, a Cassegrain telescope with a 1.05� by 1.05� field of view, a shutter and red/green filter assembly with 0.08s and 0.20s exposure times, a slow scan vidicon tube which translated the optical image into an electrical video signal, and the electronic systems required to convert the analogue signal into a digital bitstream for transmission.

Mariner 6 & 7

As part of NASA's wider Mariner program, Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 (Mariner Mars 69A and Mariner Mars 69B) completed the first dual mission toMars in 1969. Mariner 6 was launched from Launch Complex 36B at Cape Kennedy and Mariner 7 from Launch Complex 36A at Cape Kennedy. The craft flew over the  and south polar regions, analyzing the atmosphere and the surface with remote sensors, and recording and relaying hundreds of pictures. The mission's goals were to study the surface and atmosphere of Mars during close flybys, in order to establish the basis for future investigations, particularly those relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life, and to demonstrate and develop technologies required for future Mars missions. Mariner 6 also had the objective of providing experience and data which would be useful in programming the Mariner 7 encounter 5 days later.

Mars TV Camera
An analog , with a capacity of 195 million bits, could store television images for subsequent transmission.

 Each spacecraft carried a wide- and narrow-angle television camera, an infrared spectroscope, an infrared radiometer, and an ultraviolet spectroscope.

According to the Mars '69 Press kit (Link) both cameras were photo-television units, one camera ('A') was essentially the same as the Mariner 4 camera aside from being fitted with a wide-angle lens. The second camera ('B') was the narrow angle unit, but it's not clear if it was otherwise identical to the 'A' camera.

They were slow-scan vidicon. Mariner 9 and 10, Viking 1 and 2, and the Voyagers also used it

The spacecraft each acquired a series of far encounter images, composed of 704 lines consisting of 945 pixels each, as they approached the planet and a series of near encounter images (same numbers of lines and pixels/line) upon arrival. The far encounter photos had resolutions ranging from 4 to 43 km per pixel, while the near encounter images had resolutions as good as 300 m per pixel. In total, 143 far encounter images and 58 near encounter images were transmitted.

Mariner 11 & 12 (Voyager 1 & 2)

Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977. Part of the Voyager program to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1launched 16 days after its twin, Voyager 2. Having operated for 38 years and 20 days, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and return data. At a distance of 132 AU (1.97�1010 km) as of summer 2015, it is the farthest spacecraft from Earth and the only one in interstellar space.
The probe's primary mission objectives included flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturn's large moon, Titan. While the spacecraft's course could have been altered to include a Pluto encounter by forgoing the Titan flyby, exploration of the moon, which was known to have a substantial atmosphere, took priority.  It studied the weather, magnetic fields, and rings of the two planets and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons.
After completing its primary mission with the flyby of Saturn on November 20, 1980, Voyager 1 began an extended mission to explore the regions and boundaries of the outer heliosphere. On August 25, 2012, Voyager 1 crossed the heliopause to become the first spacecraft to enter interstellar space and study the interstellar medium.[6] Voyager 1's extended mission is expected to continue until around 2025, when its radioisotope thermoelectric generators will no longer supply enough electric power to operate any of its scientific instruments.
The photographic experiment used a two-camera system, based on the Mariner 10 system. This system included one narrow-angle, long-focal-length camera and one wide-angle, short-focal-length camera. The maximum resolution achievable depended on the actual trajectory on this multi-encounter mission, but the resolution was as high as 0.5 to 1.0 km on the closest approaches to some objects. At Jupiter and Saturn, the resolution was better than 20 km and 5 km, respectively.
The Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probe was the previous name of two NASA deep-space probes, that had previous to being named Mariner Jupiter-Saturn probes been known as Mariner 11 andMariner 12 and that later became known as:
Voyager 1 (Voyager 1's original project name was Mariner 11)
Voyager 2 (Voyager 2's original project name was Mariner 12)

Ranger 9

Ranger 9 was a Lunar probe, launched in 1965 by NASA. It was designed to achieve a lunar impact trajectory and to transmit high-resolution photographs of the lunar surface during the final minutes of flight up to impact. The spacecraft carried six television vidicon cameras - two wide-angle (channel F, cameras A and B) and four narrow-angle (channel P) - to accomplish these objectives. The cameras were arranged in two separate chains, or channels, each self-contained with separate power supplies, timers, and transmitters so as to afford the greatest reliability and probability of obtaining high-quality television pictures. No other experiments were carried on the spacecraft.

The television camera systems for all the Ranger spacecraft were designed and built by RCA, and RCA built the ground - based receiving equipment for the Ranger television signals and the television recording and display equipment.

Surveyor 1

Surveyor 1 was the first lunar soft-lander in the unmanned Surveyor program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA,United States). This lunar soft-lander gathered data about the lunar surface that would be needed for the manned Apollo Moon landings that began in 1969. The successful soft landing of Surveyor 1 on the Ocean of Storms was the first one by an American space probe onto anyextraterrestrial body, and it occurred just four months after the first Moon landing by the Soviet Union's Luna 9 probe. This was also a success on NASA's first attempt at a soft landing on any astronomical object.
Surveyor 1 was launched May 30, 1966, from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at Cape Canaveral, Florida, and it landed on the Moon on June 2, 1966. Surveyor 1 transmitted 11,237 still photos of the lunar surface to the Earth by using a television camera and a sophisticated radio-telemetry system.
The Surveyor program was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Los Angeles County, but the entire Surveyor space probe was designed and built by the Hughes Aircraft Company in El Segundo, California.
The TV camera consisted of a vidicon tube, 25 millimeter and 100 millimeter focal-length lenses, a shutter, several optical filters, and iris-system mounted along an axis inclined approximately 16 degrees from the central axis ofSurveyor 1. The camera was mounted under a mirror that could be moved in azimuth and elevation. This arrangement created a virtual stereo image pair so that adjacent overlapping images were stereo image pairs and could be viewed as three-dimensional images. This stereo capability permitted some photogrammetric measurements of various lunar features. The TV camera's operation was dependent on the receipt of the proper radio commands from the Earth. Frame-by-frame coverage of the lunar surface was obtained over 360 degrees in azimuth and from +40 degrees above the plane normal to the camera's axis to -65 degrees below this plane. Both 600-line and 200-line modes of operation were used. The 200-line mode transmitted over an omnidirectional antenna for the first 14 photos and scanned one frame every 61.8 seconds. The remaining transmissions were of 600-line pictures over a directional antenna, and each frame was scanned every 3.6 seconds. Each 200-line picture required 20 seconds for a complete video transmission and it used a radio bandwidth of about 1.2 kilohertz.
Each 600-line picture required about one second to be read from the vidicon tube, and they required a radio bandwidth of about 220 kilohertz. The data transmissions were converted into a standard TV signal for both closed-circuit TV and broadcast TV.  The television images were displayed on Earth on a slow-scan monitor coated with a long persistency phosphor. The persistency was selected to optimally match the nominal maximum frame rate. One frame of TV identification was received for each incoming TV frame, and it was displayed in real time at a rate compatible with the incoming image. These data were recorded on a video magnetic tape recorder. Over 10,000 pictures were taken by Surveyor 1's TV camera before the lunar sunset of June 14, 1966. Included in these pictures were wide-angle and narrow-angle panoramas, focus ranging surveys, photometric surveys, special area surveys, and celestial photography. Surveyor 1 responded to commands to activate the camera on July 7, and by July 14, 1966, it had returned nearly 1000 more pictures.

MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR - 1996.  In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory began America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft.  The Mars Global Surveyor went into orbit around Mars in September of 1997.   Most of the data volume from MGS is generated by a dual-mode camera called the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC).   In narrow-angle mode, MOC's black and white, high-resolution telephoto lens can image Martian rocks and other objects as small as 1.4 meters (4.6 feet) across.  The largest raw image possible is 2048 x 4800 pixels in size.  In contrast to the detailed surface images, MOC's wide- angle, global monitoring mode uses a fish-eye lens to generate panoramic images in color spanning horizon to horizon (NASA).  Click on image to see full-page view.

Viking 1

NASA's Viking Mission to Mars was composed of two spacecraft, Viking 1 and Viking 2, each consisting of an orbiter and a lander. The primary mission objectives were to obtain high resolution images of the Martian surface, characterize the structure and composition of the atmosphere and surface, and search for evidence of life.
Viking 1 was launched on August 20, 1975 and arrived at Mars on June 19, 1976. The first month of orbit was devoted to imaging the surface to find appropriate landing sites for the Viking Landers. On July 20, 1976 the Viking 1 Lander separated from the Orbiter and touched down at Chryse Planitia.
The Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS) on the orbiter consisted of twin high-resolution, slow-scan television framing cameras mounted on the scan platform of each orbiter with the optical axes offset by 1.38 deg. Each of the two identical cameras on each orbiter had mechanical shutters; a 475-mm focal length telescope; a 37-mm diameter vidicon (video camera tube), the central section of which was scanned in a raster (i.e. image) format of 1056 lines by 1182 samples.
A filter wheel between the lens and shutter held six color filter positions: blue (0.35 to 0.53 micrometers), minus-blue (0.48 - 0.70), violet (0.35 - 0.47), green (0.50 - 0.60), red (0.55 - 0.70), and clear (no filter). The footprint of each image covers roughly 40 x 44 km, acquired from an altitude of 1500 km. The configuration of the cameras provided overlapping, wide-swath coverage of the surface. Each pixel was digitized as a 7-bit number (0 to 127) stored in the onboard tape-recorder, and later transmitted to Earth and converted to an 8-bit number by multiplying by 2.

The instruments of the orbiter consisted of two vidicon cameras for imaging (VIS), an infrared spectrometer for water vapor mapping (MAWD) and infrared radiometers for thermal mapping (IRTM).

Telescope focuses images on a Vidicon.  Image is an imprint of variable electrostatic charge on the faceplate of the Vidicon.  Faceplate is then scanned and neutralized with an electron beam and variations in charge are read in parallel into a seven-track tape recorder. They flew on numerous missions (Mariners, Voyagers, etc)
They were heavy  (Voyager camera system ~40 kg)

Yohkoh solar X-ray telescope

On August 31, 1991, a satellite was launched into space from the Kagoshima Space Center (KSC) in Southern Japan. This satellite, known as Yohkoh("Sunbeam"), was a project of the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). The scientific objective was to observe the energetic phenomena taking place on the Sun, specifically solar flares in x-ray and gamma-ray emissions.

The satellite was three-axis stabilized and in a near-circular orbit. It carried four instruments: a Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), a Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT), a Bragg Crystal Spectrometer (BCS), and a Wide Band Spectrometer (WBS). About 50 MB were generated each day and this was stored on board by a 10.5 MB bubble memory recorder.

Because the SXT utilized a charge-coupled device (CCD) as its readout device, perhaps being the first X-ray astronomical telescope to do so, its "data cube" of images was both extensive and convenient, and it revealed much interesting detail about the behavior of the solar corona. Previous solar soft X-ray observations, such as those of Skylab, had been restricted to film as a readout device. Yohkoh therefore returned many novel scientific results, especially regarding solar flares and other forms of magnetic activity.

Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) was an X-ray telescope with glancing incidence X-ray mirror and a CCD sensor. There was also a co-aligned optical telescope using the same CCD, but after the failure of the entrance filter in November 1992 it became unusable.
The CCD is 1024 x 1024 pixels with pixel angular size of 2.45, point spread function core width (FWHM) was about 1.5 pixels, field of view was 42, which was a little larger than the whole solar disk. Typical time resolution was 2 s in flare mode and 8 s in quiet (no flare) mode, the maximum time resolution in 0.5 s.








1900 - 1920
1995 A-C
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1996 A-C
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1996 O-R
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